Document Type : Review Article
MD, Evelina London Children’s Hospital, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK.
General Pediatrics, Evelina London Children’s Hospital, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK.
Background: Brain drain has caught global attention due to its extensive impact on many, especially less developed, countries. The present study aims to review the existing studies on the brain drain phenomenon in Iran, the causes, and associated factors.
Materials and Methods: In this overview, several online databases (Medline, EMBASE, PyscINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, and Google search engine) were searched for peer-reviewed studies on the Iranian brain drain up to February 2023. Two independent researchers conducted the search process, and a supervisor resolved possible discrepancies.
Results: Various theories have been proposed to explain the causes of elite migration, among which the pull-push factors theory is the most widely used in theoretical foundations (37.4%). The results showed that higher income and the attractions of the destination countries (pull factors), repulsive factors of the country of origin (push factors), global developments, and individual and family factors had the largest influence on elite migration. The impact of elite migration can be positive or negative depending on the country and economic and social trends and can lead to opportunities or constraints for economic, social, and human development.
Conclusion: Brain drain in Iran is in part caused by exterior persuasion (i.e., pull factors from developed countries) and domestic insufficiencies (i.e., push factors), and the emigration rates are growing rapidly. It is necessary to investigate and manage this phenomenon using the existing push-pull theories, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and the theory of reasoned action.