An Overview of Entrepreneurship in Nursing: Challenges, Opportunities, and Barriers

Document Type : Review Article


1 Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

2 BSN, Omid Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 MSc of Clinical Psychology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 MSc of Health Education and Promotion, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

5 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

6 Department of Medical Education, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.



Background: Nursing entrepreneurship has promising opportunities for nurses. However, the development of entrepreneurship in nursing still faces several obstacles. This overview aims to review and summarize the main characteristics of nursing entrepreneurship and its concept, barriers, and opportunities in today’s world.
Materials and Methods: In this overview, online databases (Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, ERIC, ProQuest, CIVILICA, and Google Scholar search engine) were searched in both English and Persian up to March 2023, using combinations of keywords (“nursing entrepreneurship”, “nursing entrepreneurial”, “barrier of nursing entrepreneur”, “opportunities of nursing entrepreneur”, “nurses”, and “nursing student”).
Results: A total of five reviews and two systematic reviews were included. The concept of entrepreneurship in nursing was related to personal and professional characteristics, such as autonomy, independence, flexibility, innovation, proactivity, self-confidence, and responsibility. There were seven barriers (fear, knowledge, and skill; prior working culture experience; decision-making policy and regulations; health insurance, colleague jealousy; and unprofessional attitudes) and two supporting factors (knowledge and skills; ability to seek opportunities). It was found that entrepreneurial nurses need personal, interpersonal, commercial, and strategic skills, and there must be internal and external stimuli to motivate nurses to overcome these obstacles.
Conclusion: Entrepreneurial nurses require personal, interpersonal, commercial, and strategic skills. Thus, it is necessary to identify the obstacles and needs of entrepreneurial nurses and solve their problems to provide the necessary backgrounds for nursing entrepreneurship so that they can meet the health needs of individuals and societies. The barriers against entrepreneur nurses were mostly due to a lack of entrepreneurial knowledge, experience, and skills.