The Effect of Flipped Classroom on Student Learning Outcomes; An Overview


1 Department of Psychology and Counselling, Farhangian University, P.O. Box 14665-889, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Otorhinolaryngology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 MSN, Technical Affairs Department, Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.

4 Basic Science Department, College of Nursing, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

5 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.



Background: In flipped classrooms (FCs), teaching takes place before class. This study reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of flipped classrooms compared to traditional teaching and examines the effects of FCs on student learning outcomes.
Materials and Methods: In this overview, two independent researchers screened the articles studying the effect of flipped classrooms on students learning on databases Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, ERIC, and Medline without time and language restrictions up to Feb 10, 2022.
Results: A total of 14 systematic reviews and meta-analyses (including 699 studies from 2010 to 2022) were reviewed. Results showed that the FC is fitting with the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and has positive effects on student learning activities such as academic performance, learning motivation and engagement, social interaction, self-directed learning skills, brain-based learning, problem-based learning, multiple intelligence, student understanding, student participation, student attitudes, and lowering student anxiety. On the other hand, a meta‑analysis of 271 studies showed a slight effect of the FC on learning (Hedges’ g = 0.35, 95% CI [0.31, 0.40]), and effects on student satisfaction (Hedges’ g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.06, 0.26]) were also small. Meanwhile, some challenges were also identified, such as challenges for students (lack of student motivation to watch the pre-recorded video lectures), for teachers (the need for more preparation, difficulty controlling pre-class activities of students), and technical challenges (problem of technology and internet access).
Conclusion: Although flipped classrooms are effective alternatives in teaching and learning, the evidence is still not enough to conclude the advantages of FC over the traditional approach, and flipped classrooms may not be suitable for every course, teacher, or student.