Using the Jigsaw (Puzzle) Method in Academic Environments: Benefits and Challenges


1 MA of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.

2 Department of Midwifery, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Iran.

3 Master of Operating Room, Department of Operative Room and Anesthetics, School of Paramedical, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

4 Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Background: Over the past few decades, collaborative teaching methods have attracted the attention of university professors. Numerous researches in this field emphasize the need for a systematic review. The present study aimed to review the studies on the effectiveness of the Jigsaw educational method on university students and expresses the advantages and disadvantages of this educational method.
Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, a systemic search of online databases (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Magiran, CIVILICA, SID, and Google Scholar search engine) was conducted for related national studies with no time limit up to December 2021. Qualitative, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies were included. Two reviewers evaluated the quality of eligible studies and carried out the selection procedure.
Results: Finally, ten studies (n= 535 students) were selected. The national literature review indicated that the Jigsaw method is effective in improving students' knowledge and skills. This method increases motivation to learn and improves deep learning, creates enjoyable learning, increases academic success, self-confidence, and self-esteem, updates information, and promotes interpersonal communication. This cooperative method can be used in different fields of study (educational sciences, English, nursing, anesthesiology, and operating room). Nevertheless, the Jigsaw teaching approach can pose challenges for both the teacher and the learner. The ineffective involvement of learners, crowded classrooms, piece learning, and a lack of final ending are among the most significant of these issues.
Conclusion: Each educational method has its strengths and weaknesses. By eliminating the weaknesses of the Jigsaw method, this educational method in Iran’s educational system can have positive effects on learners' knowledge and academic performance.